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Biological Anthropology is a concise introduction to the basic themes, theories, methods and facts of bioanthropology. The scientific method provides a framework that brings accessibility and context to the material. This seventh edition presents the most recent findings and interpretations of topics in anthropology including Australopithecus sediba, the Denisovians, and epigenetics.
hemoglobin protein. FIGURE 4.9 Normal red blood cells and one with the abnormal shape (bottom left) that results from the presence of hemoglobin with one incorrect amino acid. Such cells fail to transport oxygen properly to the body’s tissues. par34957_ch04_060-081.indd 73 02/04/12 9:21 AM 74 CHAPTER 4 ◆ The Processes of Evolution JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ Contemporary Reflections Are Humans Still Evolving? As asked by most people, the question has two meanings. Perhaps the most common
conceivable that genes for such tolerances will become more frequent as their possessors become less reproductively affected by the modern environment. JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ the disease but usually not as severe as homozygotes and with a great deal of variation from person to person. The heterozygous condition is not normally fatal. For a disease that kills its victims, usually without allowing them to pass on their genes, sickle cell is found in unexpectedly high frequencies in parts of the
help pick up the molecules that make up olfactory signals. Prosimians do have the stereoscopic vision characteristic of primates, because they need to judge distances in bushes and trees, and their three-dimensional vision helps them catch insects, a favorite food of many prosimian species. par34957_ch07_116-147.indd 129 FIGURE 7.9 A primate taxonomy using traditional categories. The numbers in parentheses refer to the number of groups in that category. 02/04/12 9:33 AM 130 CHAPTER 7 ◆
animals, including other primates, and meat is the one food source that chimps will share with one another (see Chapter 8). And in 2007 it was reported that some chimps in Senegal had been seen sharpening sticks with their teeth to use as spears for stabbing and extracting galagos (also called bush babies, small nocturnal primates) from their daytime holes in trees. Finally, apes have a large repertoire of calls, facial expressions, and body gestures with which they communicate information,
to be subspecies of a single species. Others give them five different species names.) Although not as closely related to humans as are the apes, these primates have long been of interest to anthropologists because of their complex social organization and their savanna habitat—an important habitat for our early hominid ancestors (Figure 8.2). Baboon groups range in size from 20 to 200 individuals. One of the most striking aspects of baboon behavior is the aggressive competition for dominance among