Bones, Bodies, Behavior: Essays in Behavioral Anthropology (History of Anthropology, Volume 5)
George W. Stocking Jr.
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History of Anthropology is a series of annual volumes, inaugurated in 1983, each broadly unified around a theme of major importance to both the history and the present practice of anthropological inquiry. Bones, Bodies, Behavior, the fifth in the series, treats a number of issues relating to the history of biological or physical anthropology: the application of the "race" idea to humankind, the comparison of animals minds to those of humans, the evolution of humans from primate forms, and the relation of science to racial ideology. Following an introductory overview of biological anthropology in Western tradition, the seven essays focus on a series of particular historical episodes from 1830 to 1980: the emergence of the race idea in restoration France, the comparative psychological thought of the American ethnologist Lewis Henry Morgan, the archeological background of the forgery of the remains "discovered" at Piltdown in 1912, their impact on paleoanthropology in the interwar period, the background and development of physical anthropology in Nazi Germany, and the attempts of Franx Boas and others to organize a consensus against racialism among British and American scientists in the late 1930s. The volume concludes with a provocative essay on physical anthropology and primate studies in the United States in the years since such a consensus was established by the UNESCO "Statements on Race" of 1950 and 1951. Bringing together the contributions of a physical anthropologist (Frank Spencer), a historical sociologist (Michael Hammond), and a number of historians of science (Elazar Barkan, Claude Blanckaert, Donna Haraway, Robert Proctor, and Marc Swetlitz), this volume will appeal to a wide range of students, scholars, and general readers interested in the place of biological assumptions in the modern anthropological tradition, in the biological bases of human behavior, in racial ideologies, and in the development of the modern human sciences.
any regulatory and differential role to the idea of race, at least insofar as the national identities of Europeans were concerned. While he shared the negative estimation of African populations that was widespread after the reestablishment of slavery and the slave trade under the Empire and the Restoration (Stocking 1964:148; Poliakov 1971:221), SaintSimon's sympathies lay with the philanthropic medicine characteristic of the ideologue current (Gusdorf 1978). Within that current, the monistic
directly for the Edwardsian synthesis and the popularization of raciology. However, in order for the idea of the permanence of race to be thoroughly explored, the role of ethnic mixture had still to be evaluated. Relying on the zoological experiments of hybridizers, polygenists repudiated the idea that ON THE ORIGINS OF FRENCH ETHNOLOGY 33 the "half-breeds" of species were sterile, which Buffonians had made the criterion of specific difference (Blanckaert 1981, 1983). To explain the infinite
as a result of the "high intelligence" or "ingenuity of some small band of savages," who deliberately acted to eradicate the biological evils of consanguine marriages (389, 74). Elsewhere, however, in discussing the punaluan family, he spoke rather in terms of "a slow recognition of its advantages" (434). The apparent contrast between "ingenuity" and "slow recognition," and the relation of these conscious processes to "natural selection," suggests an interactive process whereby social
accelerated, and before the appearance of the Piltdown remains in 1912, a number of possible candidates were brought forth from both East Anglia and Kent. In 1895, when Prestwich was making his final pronouncements on Wealden prehistory (1895a, 1895b), evidence for British Glacial Man, in the form of an incomplete human skeleton, was found by Edwin Tulley Newton near the village of Galley Hill in Kent. At that time the only human remains discovered on British soil that were regarded as
which was well on the way to redenomination as Rassenkunde, or "racial science"-4-a term first used in reference to the "political anthropology" developed by Ludwig Woltmann in the first decade of the century. In 1909 the Austrian sociologist Ludwig Gumplowicz asserted in the second edition of his Der Rassenkampf that "today, Rassenkunde and Rassenforschung [Racial Research] have become objective sciences with their 4. The term Rassenkunde does not have an equivalent English expression, unlike