Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes (Facts on File Library of American History)
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Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes, Third Edition is a fully updated reference discussing more than 200 American Indian tribes of North America, as well as prehistoric peoples and civilizations. Arranged alphabetically by tribe or group, this comprehensive work offers 60 new entries on tribes not covered in depth in the previous editions. The informative, accessible text summarizes the historical record - locations, migrations, contacts with non-Indians, wars, and more - and includes present-day tribal affairs and issues. The book also covers traditional Indian lifeways, including diet, housing, transportation, tools, clothing, art, and rituals, as well as language families. Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes, Third Edition includes at least one representative tribe from each language family or language isolate for each of the culture areas.
Meskwaki demanded tolls in the form of trade goods from any outsiders who passed along the Fox River, which angered the French. The French and Chippewa launched a campaign against them and drove them down the Wisconsin River to new homelands. It was during this period, in 1734, that the Meskwaki joined in an alliance with the Sac, one that has lasted to present times. Starting in 1769, the two tribes plus others drove the ILLINOIS from their lands, and some Meskwaki moved farther south into what
both state and church were represented. In 1598, Juan de Oñate founded the settlements of San Juan de Yunque and Santa Fe in New Mexico in 1609 among the PUEBLO INDIANS. In 1718, Martín de Alarcón founded San Antonio in Texas. By the mid-1700s, the Spanish were establishing missions, presidios (forts), and rancherias in Baja California, which is now part of Mexico. The first Spanish settlement in the part of California that is now U.S. territory was San Diego, founded in 1769 by Gaspar de Portolá
still exists. It is located in Gila and Graham counties of Arizona. Apache also live on other reservations in Arizona: on the Camp Verde Reservation, which they share with the Yavapai, in Yava- Apache pottery ashtray (modern) APALACHEE 19 pai County; on the Fort McDowell Reservation, which they share with MOJAVE and Yavapai, in Maricopa County; and on the Fort Apache Reservation in Apache, Gila, and Navajo Counties. In New Mexico, there is the Jicarilla Reservation in Rio Arriba and Sandoval
their social organization, the Hupa, like Northwest Coast peoples, defined status by material possessions. If there was a dispute or a crime between individuals, differences could be settled by paying a fine. A mediator would negotiate the amount between the opposing parties. The three tribes all practiced annual World Renewal ceremonies. The season they were held and their length varied from group to group. For all three peoples, however, the event involved two parts: First, a shaman, who had
carried smoldering coals or heated stones in their mouths; they also plunged their arms into boiling water. This was thought to invoke a spirit, or oki, to cure the sick. When the soil in one area became depleted, or the game became scarce, or wood for building, heating, and cooking ran out, the Huron moved their villages to new sites. The Huron wore deerskin shirts, breechcloths, leggings, skirts, and moccasins, plus fur cloaks for extra warmth. They often decorated articles of clothing with