Recent Social Trends in France, 1960-1990 (Comparative Charting of Social Change)
Michel Forse, Jean-Pierre Jaslin, Yannick Lemel
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A prominent feature of the social revolution in France has been the decline of the great national institutions -- the Republic, the Army, the church, and the schools -- which are losing their symbolic value and are no longer the targets of ideological disputes. As a result, there is a growing basic consensus among the French people. At the same time, the French have developed a new interest in managing local problems -- due to the decentralization law -- which has led to the establishment of many voluntary associations. Changes in family life following the "revolution" of 1968 have led to greater instability among couples, but at the same time have strengthened the kinship system resulting in increased life expectancy. The customs of the French have also changed. The French education system, originally based on authority and regulations, is now making increasing use of experimentation and negotiation. As a result, the attitude of the French towards authority has totally changed and the French have learned to negotiate and cooperate among themselves. All these changes can be interpreted as progressive moves toward liberty, equality, and individualism. There is little danger of social instability, since French society remains in remarkably robust health.
18 24 25 38 40 Source: INSEE, Donntes societies, 1984. 51 2.3 Community and Neighbourhood Types Abstract. The revitalization of rural life around small and medium-sized towns makes localities more independent. Local areas and communes in urban agglomerations are becoming more independent. The greater role of municipalities in sports, culture, and socio-economic life has a reinvigorating effect on local companies. The standardization policy of royal, Napoleonic, and republican governmental
depopulated, whereas suburban populations are increasing, though at a slower rate than in the previous intercensal period. From 1975 on, the population of rural communes began to grow, particularly those situated on the periphery of urban agglomerations. When cities overflow into the country, new links are forged between the two. The term "rurbanization" has been coined to describe this development. The reasons for this phenomenon are multiple: the attractions of a private house, prohibitive
1346 1466 1609 1769 1983 5 LABOUR AND MANAGEMENT To adapt more quickly to market developments and optimize investments, while still responding to workers' new and varied expectations, enterprises and public services have tried to invent new forms of work management with the primary aim of mobilizing workers. This presupposes a system of work organization which gives workers more autonomy and promotes co-operation between workers and management. New technologies help to facilitate this process.
qualitative and less traditional questions (see 9.1, "Labour Unions," and 10.2, "Intitutionalization of Labour Unions"). It is therefore difficult to judge whether there is really, as some say, a reduction in worker combativeness, or just a change to more limited, tougher forms of action. People today are seeking clearer communication between central and peripheral levels; moreover, the tertiary sector requires specifically adapted modes of action because users are more directly concerned. This
493090 166361 35723 111990 50496 53146 63256 40752 323 302 583 1352 6719 5643 17488 24960 26227 36163 1 077 177 1987 Total 7090 43314 133 567 532 433 Military expenditures 2831 16720 92054 165 176 Overall total 9921 60034 162 233 624487 1 242 353 Source: INSEE, Annuaire rttrospectif de la France, 1990. 185 28666